Saturday, 17 January 2015

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad There was nothing whatsoever here in the beginning. It was covered only by Death (Hiranyagarbha), or Hunger, for hunger is death. He created the mind, thinking, 'Let me have a mind'. He moved about worshipping (himself). As he was worshipping, water was produced. (Since he thought), 'As I was worshipping, water sprang up', therefore Arka (fire) is so called. Water (or happiness) surely comes to one who knows how Arka (fire) came to have this name of Arka. He desired, 'Let me have a second form (body).' He, Death or Hunger, brought about the union of speech (the Vedas) with the mind. What was the seed there became the Year (Viraj). Before him there had been no year. He (Death) reared him for as long as a year, and after this period projected him. When he was born, (Death) opened his mouth (to swallow him). He (the babe) cried 'Bhan!' That became speech. : He thought, 'If I kill him, I shall be making very little food.' Through that speech and the mind he projected all this, whatever there is - the Vedas Rig, Yajus and Saman, the metres, the sacrifices, men and animals. Whatever he projected, he resolved to eat. Because he eats everything, therefore Aditi (Death) is so called. He who knows how Aditi came to have this name of Aditi, becomes the eater of all this, and everything becomes his food. He desired, 'Let me sacrifice again with the great sacrifice'. He was tired, and he was distressed. While he was (thus) tired and distressed, his reputation and strength departed. The organs are reputation and strength. When the organs departed, the body began to swell, (but) his mind was set on the body. Then they said to the mind 'Chant (the Udgitha) for us'. 'All right', said the mind and chanted for them. The common good that comes of the mind, it secured for the gods by chanting, while the fine thinking it utilised for itself. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. They charged it and struck it with evil. That evil is what we come across when one thinks improper things. Likewise they also touched these (other) deities with evil - struck them with evil. : Then it carried the mind. When the mind got rid of death, it became the moon. That moon, having transcended death, shines beyond its reach. So does this deity carry one who knows thus beyond death. When It does the function of living. It is called the vital force; when It speaks, the organ of speech; when It sees, the eye; when It hears, the ear; and when It thinks, the mind. These are merely Its names according to functions. He who meditates upon each of this totality of aspects does not know, for It is incomplete, (being divided) from this totality by possessing a single characteristic. The Self alone is to be meditated upon, for all these are unified in It. Of all these, this Self should be realised, for one knows all these through It, just as one may get (an animal) through its foot-prints. He who knows It as such obtains fame and association (with his relatives). The mind is his self, speech his wife, the vital force his child, the eye his human wealth, for he obtains it through the eye, the ear his divine wealth, for he hears of it through the ear, and the body is its (instrument of) rite, for he performs rites through the body. (So) this sacrifice has five factors - the animals have five factors, the men have five factors, and all this that exists has five factors. He who knows it as such attains all this. Three he designed for himself' means: the mind, the organ of speech and the vital force; these he designed for himself. (They say), 'I was absent-minded, I did not see it', 'I was absent-minded, I did not hear it'. It is through the mind that one sees and hears. Desires, resolve, doubt, faith, want of faith, steadiness, unsteadiness, shame, intelligence and fear - all these are but the mind. Even if one is touched from behind, one knows it through the mind; therefore (the mind exists). And any kind of sound is but the organ of speech, for it serves to determine a thing, but it cannot itself be revealed. Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana, Samana and Ana - all these are but the vital forces. This body is identified with these - with the organ of speech, the mind and the vital force. These are the three worlds. The organ of speech is this world (the earth), the mind is the sky, and the vital force is that world (heaven). These are the three Vedas. The organ of speech is the Rig-Veda, the mind is the Yajur-Veda and the vital force the Sama-Veda. These are the gods, the Manes and men. The organ of speech is the gods, the mind the Manes, and the vital force men. These are the father, mother and child. The mind is the father, the organ of speech the mother, and the vital force the child. Whatever it is desirable to know is a form of the mind, for the mind is what it is desirable to know. The mind protects him (who knows this) by becoming that (which it is desirable to know). Heaven is the body of this mind, and that sun is its luminous organ. And as far as the mind extends, so far extends heaven, and so far does that sun. The two were united, and from that the vital force emanated. It is the Supreme Lord. It is without a rival. A second being is indeed a rival. He who knows it as such has no rival. Now therefore the entrusting: When a man thinks he will die, he says to his son, 'You are Brahman, you are the sacrifice, and you are the world'. The son replies, 'I am Brahman, I am the sacrifice, and I am the world.' (The father thinks 'Whatever is studied is all unified in the word "Brahman". Whatever sacrifices there are, are all unified in the word "sacrifice". And whatever worlds there are, are all unified in the world "world". All this (the duties of a householder) is indeed this much. He, being all this, will protect me from (the ties of) this world.' Therefor they speak of an educated son as being conducive to the world. Hence (a father) teaches his son. When a father who knows as above departs from this world, he penetrates his son together with the organ of speech, the mind and the vital force. Should anything be left undone by him through any slip the son exonerates him from all that. Therefore he is called a son. The father lives in this world through the son. Divine and immortal speech, mind and vital force permeate him. The divine mind from heaven and the sun permeates him. That is the divine mind through which he only becomes happy and never mourns. Ajatasatru said, 'When this being full of consciousness (identified with the mind) was thus asleep, where was it, and whence did it thus come?' Gargya did not know that. Ajatasatru said, 'When this being full of consciousness is thus asleep, it absorbs at the time the functions of the organs through its own consciousness, and lies in the Akasa (Supreme Self) that is in the heart. When this being absorbs them, it is called Svapiti. Then the nose is absorbed, the organ of speech is absorbed, the eye is absorbed, the ear is absorbed, and the mind is absorbed'. This moon is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this moon. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this moon, and the shining, immortal being identified with the mind in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. Yajnavalkya', said he, 'since the sky is, as it were, without a support, through what support does the sacrificer go to heaven?' 'Through the mind - through the moon, which is the (real) priest called Brahman. The mind of the sacrificer is the Brahman. This mind is the moon; the moon is the Brahman; this (moon) is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation'. So far about the ways of emancipation; now about the meditations based on resemblance. 'Yajnavalkya', said he, 'through how many gods does this Brahman from the right protect the sacrifice to-day?' 'Through one'. 'Which is that one?' 'The mind. The mind is indeed infinite, and infinite are the Visvadevas. Through this meditation he wins an infinite world'. The mind indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, desire, for one wishes desires through the mind. 'Yajnavalkya', said he, 'when the vocal organ of a man who dies is merged in fire, the nose in air, the eye in the sun, the mind in the moon, the ear in the quarters, the body in the earth, the ether of the heart in the external ether, the hair on the body in herbs, that on the head in trees, and the blood and the seed are deposited in water, where is then the man?' 'Give me your hand, dear Artabhaga, we will decide this between ourselves, we cannot do it in a crowded place.' They went out and talked it over. What they mentioned there was only work, and what they praised there was also work alone. (Therefore) one indeed becomes good through good work and evil through evil work. Thereupon Artabhaga, of the line of Jaratkaru, kept silent. He who inhabits the mind (Manas), but is within it, whom the mind does not know, whose body is the mind, and who controls the mind from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. He said: O Gargi, the knowers of Brahman say, this Immutable (Brahman) is that. It is neither gross nor minute, neither short nor long, neither red colour nor oiliness, neither shadow nor darkness, neither air nor ether, unattached, neither savour nor odour, without eyes or ears, without the vocal organ or mind, non-luminous, without the vital force or mouth, not a measure, and without interior or exterior. It does not eat anything, nor is It eaten by anybody. Which are the Rudras?' 'The ten organs in the human body, with the mind as the eleventh. When they depart from this mortal body, they make (one's relatives) weep. Because they then make them weep, therefore they are called Rudras.' What deity are you identified with in the east?' 'With the deity, sun'. 'On what does the sun rest?' 'On the eye'. 'On what does the eye rest?' 'On colours, for one sees colours with the eye'. 'On what do colours rest?' 'On the heart (mind)', said Yajnavalkya, 'for one knows colours through the heart; it is on the heart that colours rest'. 'It is just so, Yajnavalkya'. 'Let me hear whatever any one may have told you'. 'Vidagdha, the son of Sakala, has told me that the heart (mind, here, Prajapati ) is Brahman'. 'As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Sakala said this - that the heart is Brahman. For what can a person have without the heart? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support?' 'No, he did not'. 'This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor'. 'Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya'. 'The heart is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as stability'. 'What is stability, Yajnavalkya?' 'The heart itself, O Emperor', said Yajnavalkya; 'the heart, O Emperor, is the abode of all beings, and the heart, O Emperor, is the support of all beings; on the heart, O Emperor, all beings rest; the heart, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The heart never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods'. 'I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant', said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, 'My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him'. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, rose from his lounge and approaching Yajnavalkya said, 'Salutations to you, Yajnavalkya, please instruct me'. Yajnavalkya replied, 'As one wishing to go a long distance, O Emperor, should secure a chariot or a boat, so have you fully equipped your mind with so many secret names (of Brahman). You are likewise respected and wealthy, and you have studied the Vedas and heard the Upanishads; (but) where will you go when you are separated from this body?' 'I do not know, sir, where I shall go'. 'Then I will tell you where you will go'. 'Tell me, sir'. garding this there is the following pithy verse: 'Being attached he, together with the work, attains that result to which his subtle body or mind is attached. Exhausting the results of whatever work he did in this life, he returns from that world to this for (fresh) work'. Thus does the man who desires (transmigrate). But the man who does not desire (never transmigrates). Of him who is without desires, who is free from desires, the objects of whose desire have been attained, and to whom all objects of desire are but the Self - the organs do not depart. Being but Brahman, he is merged in Brahman. Regarding this there is this pithy verse: 'When all the desires that dwell in his heart (mind) are gone, then he, having been mortal, becomes immortal, and attains Brahman in this very body'. Just as the lifeless Slough of a snake is cast off and lies in the ant-hill, so does this body lie. Then the self becomes disembodied and immortal, (becomes) the Prana (Supreme Self), Brahman, the Light. 'I give you a thousand (cows), sir', said Janaka, Emperor of Videha. Those who have known the Vital Force of the vital force, the Eye of the eye, the Ear of the ear, and the Mind of the mind, have realised the ancient, primordial Brahman. Through the mind alone (It) is to be realised. There is no difference whatsoever in It. He goes from death to death, who sees difference, as it were, in It. This being identified with the mind and resplendent (is realised by the Yogins) within the heart like a grain of rice or barley. He is the lord of all, the ruler of all, and governs whatever there is. One should meditate upon speech (the Vedas) as a cow (as it were). She has four teats - the sounds "Svaha', 'Vasat', 'Hanta' and 'Svadha'. The gods live on two of her teats - the sounds 'Svaha' and 'Vasat', men on the sound 'Hanta', and the manes on the sound 'Svadha'. Her bull is the vital force, and her calf the mind. The organ of speech went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as dumb people do, without speaking through the organ of speech, but living through the vital force, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.' So the organ of speech entered. The eye went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as blind people do, without seeing through the eye, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.' So the eye entered. The ear went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as deaf people do, without hearing through the ear, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.' So the ear entered. he mind went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as idiots do, without knowing through the mind, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and having children through the organ of generation.' So the mind entered. The organ of generation went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as eunuchs do, without having children through the organ of generation, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and knowing through the mind.' So the organ of generation entered. The organ of speech said, 'That attribute of the Vasistha which I have is yours'. The eye: 'That attribute of steadiness which I have is yours'. The ear: 'That attribute of prosperity which I have is yours'. The mind: 'That attribute of abode which I have is yours'. The organ of generation: 'That attribute of generation which I have is yours'. (The vital force said:) 'Then what will be my food and my dress?' (The organs said:) 'Whatever is (known as) food, including dogs, worms, insects and moths, is your food, and water your dress'. He who knows the food of the vital force to be such, never happens to eat anything that is not food, or to accept anything that is not food. Therefore wise men who are versed in the Vedas sip a little water just before and after eating. They regard it as removing the nakedness of the vital force. Those who know this as such, and those others who meditate with faith upon the Satya-Brahman in the forest, reach the deity identified with the flame, from him the deity of the day, from him the deity of the fortnight in which the moon waxes, from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels northward, from them the deity identified with the world of the gods, from him the sun, and from the sun the deity of lightning. (Then) a being created from the mind (of Hiranyagarbha) comes and conducts them to the worlds of Hiranyagarbha. They attain perfection and live in those worlds of Hiranyagarbha for a great many superfine years. They no more return to this world