Monday, 2 February 2015
)Katha Upanishad . The intelligent one, knowing through concentration of mind the Self that is hard to perceive, lodged in the innermost recess, located in intelligence, seated amidst misery, and ancient, abandons joy and grief. The Self that is subtler than the subtle and greater than the great is seated in the heart of every creature. One who is free from desire sees the glory of the Self through the tranquility of the mind and senses and becomes absolved from grief. None who has not refrained from bad conduct, whose senses are not under restraint, whose mind is not collected or who does not preserve a tranquil mind, can attain this Self through knowledge. Know the Self to be the master of the chariot, and the body to be the chariot. Know the intellect to be the charioteer, and the mind to be the reins. The senses they speak of as the horses; the objects within their view, the way. When the Self is yoked with the mind and the senses, the wise call It the enjoyer. But whoso is devoid of discrimination and is possessed of a mind ever uncollected - his senses are uncontrollable like the vicious horses of a driver. But whoso is devoid of a discriminating intellect, possessed of an unrestrained mind and is ever impure, does not attain that goal, but goes to samsara. But whoso is possessed of a discriminating intellect and a restrained mind, and is ever pure, attains that goal from which he is not born again. But the man who has a discriminating intellect as his driver, and a controlled-mind as the reins, reaches the end of the path - that supreme state of Vishnu. The sensory objects are subtler than the senses, and subtler than the sensory objects is mind. But intellect is subtler than mind and subtler than intellect is Mahat (the Hiranyagarbha). Let the wise man merge speech in his mind, merge that (mind) into the intelligent self and the intelligent self into the Mahat. (Let him then) merge the Mahat into the peaceful Self. By mind alone is this attainable; there is no difference here whatsoever. Whoso here sees as though different, passes from death to death. The mind is subtler than the senses; subtler than the mind is the intellect; Mahat (Hiranyagarbha) is subtler than the intellect; subtler than Mahat is Avyakta (Un-manifested). His form does not stand within the scope of vision; none beholds Him with the eye. By the intellect restraining the mind, and through meditation is He revealed. Those who know this become immortal. When the five senses of knowledge are at rest together with the mind, and the intellect is not active, that state they call the highest. Not by speech, not by mind, not by the eye can It be attained. Except in the case of one who says, 'It exists', how can It be known to anyone else? The Self should be apprehended as existing and also as It really is. Of these two (aspects), to him who knows It to exist, Its true nature is revealed.
Kaivalya Upanishad Higher than heaven, seated in the cave (Buddhi), that shines, (which) the self-controlled attain - the self-controlled, who being of pure minds have well ascertained the Reality, by the knowledge of Vedanta, and through Sannyasa or renunciation. In the sphere of Brahma, at the time of cosmic dissolution, they all get liberated from the highest (apparent) immortality of the manifested universe. Again, through his connection with deeds done in previous births, that very Jiva returns to the dream-state, or the waking state. The being who sports in the three cities (viz., the states of wakefulness, dream and profound sleep) - from Him has sprung up all diversity. He is the substratum, the bliss, the indivisible Consciousness, in whom the three cities dissolve themselves. From This spring up Prana (Vitality), mind, all the organs, sky, air, fire, water and the earth that supports all. That which is the Supreme Brahman, the soul of all, the great support of the universe, subtler than the subtle, and eternal - that is thyself, and thou art That. "That which manifests the phenomena, such as the states of wakefulness, dream and profound sleep, I am that Brahman" - realising thus one is liberated from all bonds.
Tuesday, 20 January 2015
Garbha Upanishad The eyes are used in seeing form, ears for sound, tongue for taste, the skin and nose for touch and smell respectively; genital for pleasure, Apana is for evacuation (of bowels). The person cognises through the intellect, wills with the mind and speaks with the tongue. Sadja, Risabha, Gandhara, Panchama, Madhyama, Dhaivata, Nisadha - these are the seven agreeable and disagreeable sounds. White, Red, Black smoke-coloured, Yellow, Tawny and Pale-White - these are the colours of the seven Dhatus (primary Humours). Why? For Devadatta (any person) there springs up in his mind desire for enjoyment of objects. From relish of food blood is born, from it is flesh, thence fat, bones, marrow, semen; by the combination of semen and blood the foetus is born. In the eighth month, in conjunction with the five vital airs the Jiva gets the capacity to know its past affairs (of past births), conceives of the imperishable Atman as Om, through perfect knowledge and meditation. Having known Om he sees in the body the eight Prakritis derived from it the five elements, mind, intellect and ego and the sixteen changes Why is the body so called? It has three fires: the Kosthagni ripens all that is eaten; the Darsanagni helps one see colour etc., the Jnanagni is the mind which helps perform good and bad deeds.
Dhyana-Bindu Upanishad One who is of a firm mind and without the delusion (of sensual pleasures) and ever resting in Brahman, should see like the string (in a rosary of beads) all creatures (as existing) in Atman like odour in flowers, ghee in milk, oil in gingili seeds and gold in quartz. Folding firmly the fingers of the hands, assuming firmly the Padma posture, placing the chin firmly on the breast and fixing the mind in Dhyana, one should frequently raise up the Apana, fill up with air and then leave the Prana. Then the wise man gets matchless wisdom through (this) Sakti. Now I shall give a description of Atman. In the seat of the heart is a lotus of eight petals. In its centre is Jivatma of the form of Jyotis and atomic in size, moving in a circular line. In it is located everything. In knows everything. It does everything. It does all these actions attributing everything to its own power, (thinking) I do, I enjoy, I am happy, I am miserable, I am blind, I am lame, I am deaf, I am mute, I am lean, I am stout, etc. When it rests on the eastern petal which is of Sveta (white) colour, then it has a mind (or is inclined) to Dharma with Bhakti (devotion). When it rests on the south-eastern petal, which is of Rakta (blood colour), then it is inclined to sleep and laziness. When it rests on the southern petal, which is of Krishna (black) colour, then it is inclined to hate and anger. When it rests on the south-western petal which is of Nila (blue) colour, then it gets desire for sinful or harmful actions. When it rests on the western petal which is of crystal colour, then it is inclined to flirt and amuse. When it rests on the north-western petal which is of ruby colour, then it has a mind to walk, rove and have Vairagya (or be indifferent). When it rests on the northern petal which is Pita (yellow) colour, then it is inclined to be happy and to be loving. When it rests on the north-eastern petal which is of Vaidurya (Lapis Lazuli) colour, then it is inclined to amassing money, charity and passion. When it stays in the inter-space between any two petals, then it gets the wrath arising from diseases generated through (the disturbance of the equilibrium of) Vayu, bile and phlegm (in the body). When it stays in the middle, then it knows everything, sings, dances, speaks and is blissful. When the eye is pained (after a day's work), then in order to remove (its) pain, it makes first a circular line and sinks in the middle. The first line is of the colour of Bandhuka flower (Bassia). Then is the state of sleep. In the middle of the state of sleep is the state of dream. In the middle of the state of dream, it experiences the ideas of perception, Vedas, inference, possibility, (sacred) words, etc. Then there arises much fatigue. In order to remove this fatigue, it circles the second line and sinks in the middle. The second is of the colour of (the insect) Indragopa (of red or white colour). Then comes the state of dreamless sleep.
Dakshinamurti Upanishad Then Dhyanam (thinking abut the form in the mind, when mantra is chanted). I salute him who is white like a crystal, who holds in his hands, a chain of pearl beads, the pot of nectar which is the form of knowledge, and the mudhra (symbol) of wisdom, who ties himself with a snake, who wears the moon on his head and who wears different type of ornaments
Brahma Upanishad The Ishwara, and the Resplendent; (yea) that Brahman which is transcendent shines within all these! In Itself, It is devoid of mind, of ears, of hands and feet, of light. From which without reaching It, the speech falls back with the mind, that is the transcendental Bliss of this embodied being, knowing which the wise one is released (from all bondage).
Avadhuta Upanishad That is called Dharana when the wise man regards the mind as Sankalpa and merging Sankalpa into Atman, contemplates upon his Atman (alone). Being contented with duties fulfilled and achievements accomplished, he ceaselessly reflects as follows with a contented mind:
Monday, 19 January 2015
Amrita Bindu Upanishad The mind is chiefly spoken of as of two kinds, pure and impure. The impure mind is that which is possessed of desire, and the pure is that which is devoid of desire. It is indeed the mind that is the cause of men's bondage and liberation. The mind that is attached to sense-objects leads to bondage, while dissociated from sense-objects it tends to lead to liberation. So they think. Since liberation is predicated of the mind devoid of desire for sense-objects, therefore, the mind should always be made free of such desire, by the seeker after liberation. When the mind, with its attachment for sense-objects annihilated, is fully controlled within the heart and thus realises its own essence, then that Supreme State (is gained). The mind should be controlled to that extent in which it gets merged in the heart. This is Jnana (realisation) and this is Dhyana (meditation) also, all else is argumentation and verbiage. (The Supreme State) is neither to be thought of (as being something external and pleasing to the mind), nor unworthy to be thought of (as something unpleasant to the mind); nor is It to be thought of (as being of the form of sense-pleasure), but to be thought of (as the essence of the ever-manifest, eternal, supreme Bliss Itself); that Brahman which is free from all partiality is attained in that state. The highest Truth is that (pure consciousness) which realises, "There is neither control of the mind, nor its coming into play", "Neither am I bound, nor am I a worshiper, neither am I a seeker after liberation, nor one-who has attained liberation". Like the butter hidden in milk, the Pure Consciousness resides in every being. That ought to be constantly churned out by the churning rod of the mind. Having given up Matra, Linga and Pada, he attains the subtle Pada (seat or word) without vowels or consonants by means of the letter 'M' without the Svara (accent). That is called Pratyahara when one merely thinks of the five objects of sense, such as sound, etc., as also the very unsteady mind as the reins of Atman. That is called Dharana when the wise man regards the mind as Sankalpa and merging Sankalpa into Atman, contemplates upon his Atman (alone).
Akshi Upanishad (The adepts) know Yoga to be the non-knowing (of plurality), the spontaneous attrition of the (object-seeking) mind. Rooted in Yoga, perform actions, or, averse (to all actions), perform (them) not at all. With a mind disciplined through devotion to the Shastras, teacher, and the company of the virtuous, he truthfully masters the entire body of knowledge including the secret doctrines. Fixing his steady mind on the truthful import of the Shastras and busy with the recitation of spiritual texts proper to the hermitages of the ascetics, he expends his long life, seated on a bed of stone or a slab, diverting himself with ramblings in the forest, made beautiful by his placid mind. The first three states are said to be the waking state; the fourth is called the dream state. And the mind dissolves like the fragments of an autumnal cloud. He who reaches the fifth stage survives but as bare being. Due to the dissolution of the mind in this stage the world-manifold does not present itself at all. Therefore, thou sinless one, renouncing everything, be devoted to Truth. Think: I am Brahman, solid Intelligence and Bliss, free from impurity, holy, lifted above mind and words, beyond the darkness of ignorance, beyond all appearances. This is the secret doctrine.
Yajnavalkya Upanishad Possessing a form as one new-born (i.e. unclad) unaffected by pairs (of opposites, such as heat and cold, pleasure and pain); accepting nothing (except alms, for bare sustenance); well established in the path of the truth of Brahman; of pure mind; receiving alms into the mouth (lit. into the vessel of the belly) at the prescribed time in order to sustain life, becoming equanimous at gain and loss (of alms), drinking water from the vessel of hand or from a water vessel, begging alms but to store in the belly; devoid of any other vessel; the watering place serving as water vessel; sheltering, equanimous at gain and loss of it, in an abode which is free from disturbance and is solitary (such as) an unoccupied house, a temple, a clump of (tall) grass (or hay stack), an ant-hill, the shade of a tree a potter's hut, a hut where ritual fire is kept, the sandy bank of a river, a mountain thicket, a cave, a hollow in a tree, the vicinity of a water fall or a piece of clean ground, without residing in a fixed abode; making no efforts (for gainful activity) and deeply intent on the uprooting of good and bad actions - such a sage who finally gives up his body in the state of renunciation is indeed a Paramahamsa. Even ascetics are seen who are careless, whose minds are in outward phenomenal things, are tale-bearers, eager to quarrel and whose views are condemned by the Veda. Woman is the bait stuck in the fish-hook at the string of evil propensity to catch men in the form of fish that are in the pond of worldly life and that are active in the mud of the mind.
Turiyatita Avadhuta Upanishad Wise sages consider that one who remains in the path of the Avadhuta is very rare in the world and (such sages) are not many; if one becomes (an Avadhuta) he is ever pure, he is indeed the embodiment of dispassion; he is indeed the visible form of wisdom and he is indeed the personification of the Veda (Vedapurusha). He is a (truly) great man, as his mind abides in me alone. There is nought else distinct from me'; absorbing in the Self the fuel (of concept) other than the secret known only by the gods; untouched by sorrow; unresponsive to (worldly) happiness; free of desire for affection; unattached everywhere to the auspicious or the inauspicious; with (the functioning of) all senses at standstill; unmindful of the superiority of his conduct, learning and moral merit (dharma) acquired in the previous stages of his life; giving up the conduct befitting caste and stage of life (Vanaprastha); dreamless, as night and day are the same to him; ever on the move everywhere; remaining with the body alone left to him; his water-pot being the watering-place (only); ever sensible (but) wandering alone as though he were a child, madman or ghost; always observing silence and deeply meditating on his Self, he has for his support the propless (Brahman); forgetting everything (else) in consonance with the absorption in his Self; this Turiyatita sage reaching the state of the Avadhuta ascetic and completely absorbed in non-duality (of the Atman) (finally) gives up his body as he has become one with Om (the Pranava): such an ascetic is an Avadhuta; he has accomplished his life's purpose. Thus (ends) the Upanishad.
Trisikhi Brahmana Upanishad Ether is consciousness viz mind, wisdom, self will, and egoism. Egoism is limited to mind, brain and the will to do. Similar to the fact that churning of water produces ripples and foam, by churning of mind several painful thoughts are produced. To get results of yoga, it has to be done without any other thought. Without practice you will not succeed in Yoga or wisdom. The yogi will not get the results out of these also. So by practice of yoga, mind and soul should be controlled. The Yogi should cut off the problems in yoga similar to the cutting of material with a sharp knife Since his mind and soul does not have anything to catch hold of (get attached), he becomes stable in the form of wisdom, and his soul melts like a piece of salt and he merges in to the sea of pure consciousness Turiyatita Avadhuta Upanishad Wise sages consider that one who remains in the path of the Avadhuta is very rare in the world and (such sages) are not many; if one becomes (an Avadhuta) he is ever pure, he is indeed the embodiment of dispassion; he is indeed the visible form of wisdom and he is indeed the personification of the Veda (Vedapurusha). He is a (truly) great man, as his mind abides in me alone. There is nought else distinct from me'; absorbing in the Self the fuel (of concept) other than the secret known only by the gods; untouched by sorrow; unresponsive to (worldly) happiness; free of desire for affection; unattached everywhere to the auspicious or the inauspicious; with (the functioning of) all senses at standstill; unmindful of the superiority of his conduct, learning and moral merit (dharma) acquired in the previous stages of his life; giving up the conduct befitting caste and stage of life (Vanaprastha); dreamless, as night and day are the same to him; ever on the move everywhere; remaining with the body alone left to him; his water-pot being the watering-place (only); ever sensible (but) wandering alone as though he were a child, madman or ghost; always observing silence and deeply meditating on his Self, he has for his support the propless (Brahman); forgetting everything (else) in consonance with the absorption in his Self; this Turiyatita sage reaching the state of the Avadhuta ascetic and completely absorbed in non-duality (of the Atman) (finally) gives up his body as he has become one with Om (the Pranava): such an ascetic is an Avadhuta; he has accomplished his life's purpose. Thus (ends) the Upanishad.
Subala Upanishad Without vital breath, face, ears, speech, mind, radiance, eyes, name, lineage, head, hands or feet, smoothness, blood, measurability, neither long, short nor gross, nor atomic, shoreless, beyond description, not open, nor illuminable, nor closed, without inside or outside; it neither eats nor is eaten. The mind is the owner, the thinkable things are the elemental, the moon is the deity, the artery is the link. He that is in the mind etc., -- meditate on him. The mind stuff is the owner, the apprehensible is the elemental, the Jiva is the deity - meditate on him. The hands are the owners, what is grasped is the elemental, Indra the deity - He that is in the hands etc., -- meditate on him He is the omniscient, almighty, inner ruler, source of all, waited on by all bliss but does not wait on bliss; waited on by Vedas and Shastras, but not waiting on them; whose food all this is but who is never food; agent and governor of all leadings, made of food-soul of elements, made of Prana - soul of sense-organs, made of mind; soul of thought, made of knowledge - soul of time, made of bliss - soul of dissolution. Narayana is the eye as well as the visible, ear as well as the audible, nose and the scentable, tongue and the tastable, skin and the tactile, mind and the thinkable, intellect and its contents, ego and its field, speech and its contents, hands, feet, their fields, anus and genital - all are Narayana. Supporter, ordainer, transformer - all is He The unborn, sole, immortal being inside the body, whose body is the Earth and who moves inside the body unknown to the Earth, who moves inside water, as the body unknown to it, who moves inside fire unknown to it, who moves inside air unknown to it, so also inside Mind, Intellect, Ego, Chitta (mind-stuff), Avyakta (unmanifest), Akshara (imperishable), Death - He is the inner, sinless, self, divine Narayana. Four arteries are these - Rama, Arama, Iccha, Apunarbhava (pleasing, not pleasing, desire and not born again). Of these Rama leads to the world of merit through merit, Arama to the world of demerit through demerit. By Iccha, one reaches what one thinks of. By Apunarbhava he breaks through the sheath (Kosa) then the cranium, earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, elements, Mahat, Avyakta, akshara, Mrityu. This Mrityu becomes one with the supreme deity. Beyond that there is neither being nor non-being, nor their combination. This is the doctrine of Nirvana of the Vedas. The earth is indeed the food, water is the eater; water is the food, fire the eater; fire is the food, air is the eater; air is the food, ether the eater; mind the food, intellect the eater; intellect the food, Avyakta the eater; Avyakta the food, Akshara (imperishable) is the eater, Akshara the food, Death is the eater - it becomes one in the supreme deity beyond which there is neither existence nor non-existence - this is the Vedic doctrines of liberation.
Sunday, 18 January 2015
Satyayaniya Upanishad The mind alone is the cause of bondage and liberation of the people; (the mind) attached to the objects of the senses leads them to bondage; freed from the objects it leads them to liberation. (Thus) it has been declared. If that attachment of the mind of a person to the objects of the senses is directed towards Brahman, who shall not be liberated from bondage? The mind (chitta) alone is worldly life; hence it should be purified with effort. As the mind is, so he becomes. This is the eternal secret. Then indeed, Oh Brahmana, there are four kinds of ascetics, namely Kutichaka, Bahudaka, Hamsa and Paramahamsa. All these bear the signs of Vishnu (i.e. they strive for liberation), wear tuft and sacred thread, are pure in mind, consider their own Self as Brahman, are intent on worship (of God) in the form of pure consciousness, practise muttering of prayers and the principal and secondary disciplines (Yama and Niyama), are of good conduct and (thus) become exalted. The practice of yoga consists of the constant single-minded devoted service of Vishnu, the Guru; non-injuring by word, thought and deed is the devotional act of penance (tapoyajna).
Paramahamsa Upanishad The path of the Paramahamsas that you ask of is accessible with the greatest difficulty by people; they have not many exponents, and it is enough if there be one such. Verily, such a one rests in the ever-pure Brahman; he is verily the Brahman inculcated in the Vedas - this is what the knowers of Truth hold; he is the great one, for he rests his whole mind always in Me; and I, too, for that reason, reside in him. He should not accept anything made of gold or the like, he should not have a body of disciples, or accept wealth. If it be asked what harm there is in accepting them, (the reply is) yes, there is harm in doing so. Because if the Sannyasin looks at gold with longing, he makes himself a killer of Brahman; because if the Sannyasin touches gold with longing, he becomes degraded into a Chandala; because if he takes gold with longing, he makes himself a killer of the Atman. Therefore, the Sannyasin must neither look at, nor touch nor take gold, with longing. All desires of the mind cease to exist, (and consequently) he is not agitated by grief, and has no longing for happiness; renunciation of attachment to sense-pleasures comes, and he is everywhere unattached in good or evil, (consequently) he neither hates nor is elated.
Paingala Upanishad Similarly from the aggregate of the three Sattva parts of the elements, he manifested the inner organ. Its functions are the mind, the intellect, thought and the ego. The objects of these are imagination, determination, memory, conceit and investigation. Their bases are the throat, the mouth, the navel, the heart and the junction of the eye-brows. With the fourth part of the Sattva of the elements, he manifested the sense of Cognition. Its functions are the ears, the skin, the eyes, the tongue and the nose. Their objects are sound, touch, form, taste and smell.
Muktika Upanishad Dying in the sacred Brahmanala in Kashi, he will get the Taraka-mantra and also liberation, without rebirth. On dying anywhere (else) in Kashi, Maheshvara will utter the Taraka-mantra in his right ear. He gets Sarupya with me as his sins are washed away. The same is called Salokya and Sarupya. Persevering in good conduct, with mind fixed upon me, loving me as the Self of all, the twice-born gets nearer to me - This is called the three forms of liberation. Salokya, Sarupya and Samipya.
Mandala Brahmana Upanishad The controlling of the Manas and the not longing after the fruits of actions and a state of Vairagya - all these constitute Niyama. The sitting in any posture pleasant to one and clothed in tatters (or bark) is prescribed for Asana (posture). Inspiration, restraint of breath and expiration, which have respectively 16, 64 and 32 (Matras) constitute Pranayama (restraint of breath). The restraining of the mind from the objects of senses is Pratyahara (subjugation of the senses). The contemplation of the oneness of consciousness in all objects is Dhyana. The mind having been drawn away from the objects of the senses, the fixing of the Chaitanya (consciousness) (on one alone) is Dharana. The forgetting of oneself in Dhyana is Samadhi.
Jabala Upanishad . Possessing a form as one just born (i.e. unclad), unaffected by the pairs (of opposites, such as heat and cold, pleasure and pain), accepting nothing (except bare sustenance), well established in the path of the truth of Brahman, of pure mind, receiving alms into the mouth (literally into the vessel of the belly) at the prescribed hour in order to sustain life, becoming equanimous at gain or loss (of alms), sheltering himself, without an abode (of his own), in an unoccupied house, a temple, a clump of (tall) grass (or a heap of straw), an anthill, the shade of a tree, a potter's hut, a cottage where sacred fire is kept, sandy bank of a river, a mountain thicket or cavity, a hollow in a tree, the vicinity of a water fall or a piece of clean ground; making no efforts (in any kind of gainful activity), free from 'mineness' (i.e. a sense of possessiveness), ever meditating on Brahman, devoted to the Self, ever intent on eradication of the good and bad karman, (the sage) finally gives up his body in the state of renunciation - (such a sage) is indeed a Paramahamsa. Thus (ends) the Upanishad.
Saturday, 17 January 2015
Isavasya Upanishad Unmoving, It is one, faster than the mind. The senses cannot reach It, for It proceeds ahead. Remaining static It overtakes others that run. On account of Its presence, Matarsiva (the wind) conducts the activities of beings. That (Self) is all-pervading, radiant, bodiless, soreless, without sinews, pure, untainted by sin, the all-seer, the lord of the mind, transcendent and self-existent. That (Self) did allot in proper order to the eternal Prajapatis known as samvalsara (year) their duties. Let (my) vital air (prana) now attain the immortal Air (all-pervading Self); then let this body be reduced to ashes. Om, O mind, remember - remember that which has been done.
Hamsa Upanishad In the filament (of the lotus), there arises the waking state; in the pericarp there arises the Svapna (dreaming state); in the Bija (seed of pericarp), there arises the Sushupti (dreamless sleeping state); when leaving the lotus, there is the Turya (fourth state). When Hamsa is absorbed in Nada (spiritual sound), the state beyond the fourth is reached. Nada (which is at the end of sound and beyond speech and mind) is like a pure crystal extending from (Mula) Adhara to Brahmarandhra. It is that which is spoken of as Brahma and Paramatman. After that, Unmani is the end of the Ajapa (Mantra). Having thus reflected upon Manas by means of This (Hamsa), one hears Nada after the uttering of this Japa (Mantra) a crore of times. It (Nada) is (begun to be heard as) of ten kinds. . He may experience the tenth without the first nine sounds (through the initiation of a Guru). In the first stage, his body becomes Chini-Chini; in the second, there is the (Bhanjana) breaking (or affecting) in the body; in the third, there is the (Bhedana) piercing; in the fourth, the head shakes; in the fifth, the palate produces saliva; in the sixth, nectar is attained; in the seventh, the knowledge of the hidden (things in the world) arises; in the eighth, Para-Vak is heard; in the ninth, the body becomes invisible and the pure divine eye is developed; in the tenth, he attains Para-Brahman in the presence of (or with) Atman which is Brahman. After that, when Manas destroyed, when it which is the source of Sankalpa and Vikalpa disappears, owing to the destruction of these two, and when virtues and sins are burnt away, then he shines as Sadashiva of the nature of Sakti pervading everywhere, being effulgence in its very essence, the immaculate, the eternal, the stainless and the most quiescent Om. Thus is the teaching of the Vedas; and thus is the Upanishad."
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad There was nothing whatsoever here in the beginning. It was covered only by Death (Hiranyagarbha), or Hunger, for hunger is death. He created the mind, thinking, 'Let me have a mind'. He moved about worshipping (himself). As he was worshipping, water was produced. (Since he thought), 'As I was worshipping, water sprang up', therefore Arka (fire) is so called. Water (or happiness) surely comes to one who knows how Arka (fire) came to have this name of Arka. He desired, 'Let me have a second form (body).' He, Death or Hunger, brought about the union of speech (the Vedas) with the mind. What was the seed there became the Year (Viraj). Before him there had been no year. He (Death) reared him for as long as a year, and after this period projected him. When he was born, (Death) opened his mouth (to swallow him). He (the babe) cried 'Bhan!' That became speech. : He thought, 'If I kill him, I shall be making very little food.' Through that speech and the mind he projected all this, whatever there is - the Vedas Rig, Yajus and Saman, the metres, the sacrifices, men and animals. Whatever he projected, he resolved to eat. Because he eats everything, therefore Aditi (Death) is so called. He who knows how Aditi came to have this name of Aditi, becomes the eater of all this, and everything becomes his food. He desired, 'Let me sacrifice again with the great sacrifice'. He was tired, and he was distressed. While he was (thus) tired and distressed, his reputation and strength departed. The organs are reputation and strength. When the organs departed, the body began to swell, (but) his mind was set on the body. Then they said to the mind 'Chant (the Udgitha) for us'. 'All right', said the mind and chanted for them. The common good that comes of the mind, it secured for the gods by chanting, while the fine thinking it utilised for itself. The Asuras knew that through this chanter the gods would surpass them. They charged it and struck it with evil. That evil is what we come across when one thinks improper things. Likewise they also touched these (other) deities with evil - struck them with evil. : Then it carried the mind. When the mind got rid of death, it became the moon. That moon, having transcended death, shines beyond its reach. So does this deity carry one who knows thus beyond death. When It does the function of living. It is called the vital force; when It speaks, the organ of speech; when It sees, the eye; when It hears, the ear; and when It thinks, the mind. These are merely Its names according to functions. He who meditates upon each of this totality of aspects does not know, for It is incomplete, (being divided) from this totality by possessing a single characteristic. The Self alone is to be meditated upon, for all these are unified in It. Of all these, this Self should be realised, for one knows all these through It, just as one may get (an animal) through its foot-prints. He who knows It as such obtains fame and association (with his relatives). The mind is his self, speech his wife, the vital force his child, the eye his human wealth, for he obtains it through the eye, the ear his divine wealth, for he hears of it through the ear, and the body is its (instrument of) rite, for he performs rites through the body. (So) this sacrifice has five factors - the animals have five factors, the men have five factors, and all this that exists has five factors. He who knows it as such attains all this. Three he designed for himself' means: the mind, the organ of speech and the vital force; these he designed for himself. (They say), 'I was absent-minded, I did not see it', 'I was absent-minded, I did not hear it'. It is through the mind that one sees and hears. Desires, resolve, doubt, faith, want of faith, steadiness, unsteadiness, shame, intelligence and fear - all these are but the mind. Even if one is touched from behind, one knows it through the mind; therefore (the mind exists). And any kind of sound is but the organ of speech, for it serves to determine a thing, but it cannot itself be revealed. Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana, Samana and Ana - all these are but the vital forces. This body is identified with these - with the organ of speech, the mind and the vital force. These are the three worlds. The organ of speech is this world (the earth), the mind is the sky, and the vital force is that world (heaven). These are the three Vedas. The organ of speech is the Rig-Veda, the mind is the Yajur-Veda and the vital force the Sama-Veda. These are the gods, the Manes and men. The organ of speech is the gods, the mind the Manes, and the vital force men. These are the father, mother and child. The mind is the father, the organ of speech the mother, and the vital force the child. Whatever it is desirable to know is a form of the mind, for the mind is what it is desirable to know. The mind protects him (who knows this) by becoming that (which it is desirable to know). Heaven is the body of this mind, and that sun is its luminous organ. And as far as the mind extends, so far extends heaven, and so far does that sun. The two were united, and from that the vital force emanated. It is the Supreme Lord. It is without a rival. A second being is indeed a rival. He who knows it as such has no rival. Now therefore the entrusting: When a man thinks he will die, he says to his son, 'You are Brahman, you are the sacrifice, and you are the world'. The son replies, 'I am Brahman, I am the sacrifice, and I am the world.' (The father thinks 'Whatever is studied is all unified in the word "Brahman". Whatever sacrifices there are, are all unified in the word "sacrifice". And whatever worlds there are, are all unified in the world "world". All this (the duties of a householder) is indeed this much. He, being all this, will protect me from (the ties of) this world.' Therefor they speak of an educated son as being conducive to the world. Hence (a father) teaches his son. When a father who knows as above departs from this world, he penetrates his son together with the organ of speech, the mind and the vital force. Should anything be left undone by him through any slip the son exonerates him from all that. Therefore he is called a son. The father lives in this world through the son. Divine and immortal speech, mind and vital force permeate him. The divine mind from heaven and the sun permeates him. That is the divine mind through which he only becomes happy and never mourns. Ajatasatru said, 'When this being full of consciousness (identified with the mind) was thus asleep, where was it, and whence did it thus come?' Gargya did not know that. Ajatasatru said, 'When this being full of consciousness is thus asleep, it absorbs at the time the functions of the organs through its own consciousness, and lies in the Akasa (Supreme Self) that is in the heart. When this being absorbs them, it is called Svapiti. Then the nose is absorbed, the organ of speech is absorbed, the eye is absorbed, the ear is absorbed, and the mind is absorbed'. This moon is (like) honey to all beings, and all beings are (like) honey to this moon. (The same with) the shining immortal being who is in this moon, and the shining, immortal being identified with the mind in the body. (These four) are but this Self. This (Self-knowledge) is (the means of) immortality; this (underlying unity) is Brahman; this (knowledge of Brahman) is (the means of becoming) all. Yajnavalkya', said he, 'since the sky is, as it were, without a support, through what support does the sacrificer go to heaven?' 'Through the mind - through the moon, which is the (real) priest called Brahman. The mind of the sacrificer is the Brahman. This mind is the moon; the moon is the Brahman; this (moon) is liberation; this (liberation) is emancipation'. So far about the ways of emancipation; now about the meditations based on resemblance. 'Yajnavalkya', said he, 'through how many gods does this Brahman from the right protect the sacrifice to-day?' 'Through one'. 'Which is that one?' 'The mind. The mind is indeed infinite, and infinite are the Visvadevas. Through this meditation he wins an infinite world'. The mind indeed is the Graha; it is controlled by the Atigraha, desire, for one wishes desires through the mind. 'Yajnavalkya', said he, 'when the vocal organ of a man who dies is merged in fire, the nose in air, the eye in the sun, the mind in the moon, the ear in the quarters, the body in the earth, the ether of the heart in the external ether, the hair on the body in herbs, that on the head in trees, and the blood and the seed are deposited in water, where is then the man?' 'Give me your hand, dear Artabhaga, we will decide this between ourselves, we cannot do it in a crowded place.' They went out and talked it over. What they mentioned there was only work, and what they praised there was also work alone. (Therefore) one indeed becomes good through good work and evil through evil work. Thereupon Artabhaga, of the line of Jaratkaru, kept silent. He who inhabits the mind (Manas), but is within it, whom the mind does not know, whose body is the mind, and who controls the mind from within, is the Internal Ruler, your own immortal self. He said: O Gargi, the knowers of Brahman say, this Immutable (Brahman) is that. It is neither gross nor minute, neither short nor long, neither red colour nor oiliness, neither shadow nor darkness, neither air nor ether, unattached, neither savour nor odour, without eyes or ears, without the vocal organ or mind, non-luminous, without the vital force or mouth, not a measure, and without interior or exterior. It does not eat anything, nor is It eaten by anybody. Which are the Rudras?' 'The ten organs in the human body, with the mind as the eleventh. When they depart from this mortal body, they make (one's relatives) weep. Because they then make them weep, therefore they are called Rudras.' What deity are you identified with in the east?' 'With the deity, sun'. 'On what does the sun rest?' 'On the eye'. 'On what does the eye rest?' 'On colours, for one sees colours with the eye'. 'On what do colours rest?' 'On the heart (mind)', said Yajnavalkya, 'for one knows colours through the heart; it is on the heart that colours rest'. 'It is just so, Yajnavalkya'. 'Let me hear whatever any one may have told you'. 'Vidagdha, the son of Sakala, has told me that the heart (mind, here, Prajapati ) is Brahman'. 'As one who has a mother, a father and a teacher should say, so has the son of Sakala said this - that the heart is Brahman. For what can a person have without the heart? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support?' 'No, he did not'. 'This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor'. 'Then you tell us, Yajnavalkya'. 'The heart is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as stability'. 'What is stability, Yajnavalkya?' 'The heart itself, O Emperor', said Yajnavalkya; 'the heart, O Emperor, is the abode of all beings, and the heart, O Emperor, is the support of all beings; on the heart, O Emperor, all beings rest; the heart, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The heart never leaves him who, knowing thus, meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods'. 'I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant', said Emperor Janaka. Yajnavalkya replied, 'My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him'. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, rose from his lounge and approaching Yajnavalkya said, 'Salutations to you, Yajnavalkya, please instruct me'. Yajnavalkya replied, 'As one wishing to go a long distance, O Emperor, should secure a chariot or a boat, so have you fully equipped your mind with so many secret names (of Brahman). You are likewise respected and wealthy, and you have studied the Vedas and heard the Upanishads; (but) where will you go when you are separated from this body?' 'I do not know, sir, where I shall go'. 'Then I will tell you where you will go'. 'Tell me, sir'. garding this there is the following pithy verse: 'Being attached he, together with the work, attains that result to which his subtle body or mind is attached. Exhausting the results of whatever work he did in this life, he returns from that world to this for (fresh) work'. Thus does the man who desires (transmigrate). But the man who does not desire (never transmigrates). Of him who is without desires, who is free from desires, the objects of whose desire have been attained, and to whom all objects of desire are but the Self - the organs do not depart. Being but Brahman, he is merged in Brahman. Regarding this there is this pithy verse: 'When all the desires that dwell in his heart (mind) are gone, then he, having been mortal, becomes immortal, and attains Brahman in this very body'. Just as the lifeless Slough of a snake is cast off and lies in the ant-hill, so does this body lie. Then the self becomes disembodied and immortal, (becomes) the Prana (Supreme Self), Brahman, the Light. 'I give you a thousand (cows), sir', said Janaka, Emperor of Videha. Those who have known the Vital Force of the vital force, the Eye of the eye, the Ear of the ear, and the Mind of the mind, have realised the ancient, primordial Brahman. Through the mind alone (It) is to be realised. There is no difference whatsoever in It. He goes from death to death, who sees difference, as it were, in It. This being identified with the mind and resplendent (is realised by the Yogins) within the heart like a grain of rice or barley. He is the lord of all, the ruler of all, and governs whatever there is. One should meditate upon speech (the Vedas) as a cow (as it were). She has four teats - the sounds "Svaha', 'Vasat', 'Hanta' and 'Svadha'. The gods live on two of her teats - the sounds 'Svaha' and 'Vasat', men on the sound 'Hanta', and the manes on the sound 'Svadha'. Her bull is the vital force, and her calf the mind. The organ of speech went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as dumb people do, without speaking through the organ of speech, but living through the vital force, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.' So the organ of speech entered. The eye went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as blind people do, without seeing through the eye, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, hearing through the ear, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.' So the eye entered. The ear went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as deaf people do, without hearing through the ear, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, knowing through the mind and having children through the organ of generation.' So the ear entered. he mind went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as idiots do, without knowing through the mind, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and having children through the organ of generation.' So the mind entered. The organ of generation went out. After staying a whole year out it came back and said, 'How did you manage to live without me?' They said, 'We lived just as eunuchs do, without having children through the organ of generation, but living through the vital force, speaking through the organ of speech, seeing through the eye, hearing through the ear and knowing through the mind.' So the organ of generation entered. The organ of speech said, 'That attribute of the Vasistha which I have is yours'. The eye: 'That attribute of steadiness which I have is yours'. The ear: 'That attribute of prosperity which I have is yours'. The mind: 'That attribute of abode which I have is yours'. The organ of generation: 'That attribute of generation which I have is yours'. (The vital force said:) 'Then what will be my food and my dress?' (The organs said:) 'Whatever is (known as) food, including dogs, worms, insects and moths, is your food, and water your dress'. He who knows the food of the vital force to be such, never happens to eat anything that is not food, or to accept anything that is not food. Therefore wise men who are versed in the Vedas sip a little water just before and after eating. They regard it as removing the nakedness of the vital force. Those who know this as such, and those others who meditate with faith upon the Satya-Brahman in the forest, reach the deity identified with the flame, from him the deity of the day, from him the deity of the fortnight in which the moon waxes, from him the deities of the six months in which the sun travels northward, from them the deity identified with the world of the gods, from him the sun, and from the sun the deity of lightning. (Then) a being created from the mind (of Hiranyagarbha) comes and conducts them to the worlds of Hiranyagarbha. They attain perfection and live in those worlds of Hiranyagarbha for a great many superfine years. They no more return to this world
Friday, 16 January 2015
Tripura Upanishad The Power of Consciousness and desire's Lord, Lord of auspicious powers, coequals both, Of equal prowess, in energy equal, Grant gifts to the fortunate here. Of the two, the un-ageing Power, the world's womb, With offering of knowledge pleased, Removes the aspirant's twofold sheath. With mind averted from illusion's sphere He becomes Creator, Protector, Withdrawer of the world; Nay, one with Cosmic Being.
Nirvana Upanishad The (bliss of) Brahman is free from the (three) qualities (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas). (Brahman) is realized by discrimination (of the real from the unreal) (and) it is beyond the reach of the mind and speech. Restraint on the mind is the patched garment. Complete quiescence of the mind is the practice of Brahmavidya. The ether of consciousness is the great established conclusion. Instruction in the emancipating mantra results in efficiency of bodily limbs and mind for possessing divine power in practising tranquillity, self-restraint, etc., and in the realization of the oneness of the (so-called) higher and lower Self. The presiding deity (of the Taraka) is the everlasting bliss of non-duality.
Nada Bindu Upanishad That which is beyond these, (viz.,) Para-Brahman which is beyond (the above Matras), the pure, the all-pervading, beyond Kalas, the ever resplendent and the source of all Jyotis (light) should be known. When the mind goes beyond the organs and the Gunas and is absorbed, having no separate existence and no mental action, then (the Guru) should instruct him (as to his further course of development). That person always engaged in its contemplation and always absorbed in it should gradually leave off his body (or family) following the course of Yoga and avoiding all intercourse with society. When he comes to that stage when the sound of the great kettle-drum is being heard, he should try to distinguish only sounds more and more subtle. He may change his concentration from the gross sound to the subtle, or from the subtle to the gross, but he should not allow his mind to be diverted from them towards others. The mind having at first concentrated itself on any one sound fixes firmly to that and is absorbed in it. It (the mind) becoming insensible to the external impressions, becomes one with the sound as milk with water and then becomes rapidly absorbed in Chidakasa (the Akasa where Chit prevails). Being indifferent towards all objects, the Yogin having controlled his passions, should by continual practice concentrate his attention upon the sound which destroys the mind. Having abandoned all thoughts and being freed from all actions, he should always concentrate his attention on the sound and (then) his Chitta becomes absorbed in it. Being indifferent towards all objects, the Yogin having controlled his passions, should by continual practice concentrate his attention upon the sound which destroys the mind. Having abandoned all thoughts and being freed from all actions, he should always concentrate his attention on the sound and (then) his Chitta becomes absorbed in it. Just as the bee drinking the honey (alone) does not care for the odour, so the Chitta which is always absorbed in sound, does not long for sensual objects, as it is bound by the sweet smell of Nada and has abandoned its flitting nature. The serpent Chitta through listening to the Nada is entirely absorbed in it and becoming unconscious of everything concentrates itself on the sound. The sound serves the purpose of a sharp goad to control the maddened elephant - Chitta which roves in the pleasure-garden of the sensual objects. It serves the purpose of a snare for binding the deer - Chitta. It also serves the purpose of a shore to the ocean waves of Chitta. The sound proceeding from Pranava which is Brahman is of the nature of effulgence; the mind becomes absorbed in it; that is the supreme seat of Vishnu. The sound exists till there is the Akasic conception (Akasa-Sankalpa). Beyond this, is the (Asabda) soundless Para-Brahman which is Paramatman. The mind exists so long as there is sound, but with its (sound's cessation) there is the state called Unmani of Manas (viz., the state of being above the mind). This sound is absorbed in the Akshara (indestructible) and the soundless state is the supreme seat. The mind which along with Prana (Vayu) has (its) Karmic affinities destroyed by the constant concentration upon Nada is absorbed in the unstained One. There is no doubt of it. After that, he does not at any time hear the sounds of conch or Dundubhi (large kettle drum). The body in the state of Unmani is certainly like a log and does not feel heat or cold, joy or sorrow. The Yogin's Chitta having given up fame or disgrace is in Samadhi above the three states. Being freed from the waking and the sleeping states, he attains to his true state.. When the (spiritual) sight becomes fixed without any object to be seen, when the Vayu (Prana) becomes still without any effort, and when the Chitta becomes firm without any support, he becomes of the form of the internal sound of Brahma-Pranava.
Kaushitaki Brahmana Upanishad He comes to the lake Ara: he crosses it with his mind. On coming to it, those who know (only) the immediate (present) sink. He comes to the moments Yestihas these run away from him. He comes to the river Viraja. He crosses it with his mind alone. There he shakes off his good and evil deeds
Atma-Bodha Upanishad I have no bondage nor liberation, no Shastra, no Guru. I have gone beyond Maya - let life go away or let the mind be attacked - I have no misery as I am filled with joy, I know myself; Ignorance has run away somewhere - I have no doership nor duty, kula and gotra. These belong to the gross body, not to me different from it. Hunger, thirst, blindness, etc., belong to the Linga-deha only. Dullness, desire etc., belong only to the Karana-deha
Aitareya Upanishad The heart took shape; from the heart issued the internal organ (mind); from the internal organ came the Moon the Moon entered into the heart in the shape of the mind; He wanted to take it up with the mind. He did not succeed in taking it up with the mind. If He had taken it up with the mind, then one would have become satisfied by merely thinking of food. "If utterance is done by the organ of speech, smelling by the sense of smell, seeing by the eye, hearing by the ear, feeling by the sense of touch, thinking by the mind, the act of drawing in (or pressing down) by Apana, ejecting by the procreative organ, then who (or what) am I?" It is this heart (intellect) and this mind that were stated earlier. It is sentience, rulership, secular knowledge, presence of mind, retentiveness, sense-perception, fortitude, thinking, genius, mental suffering, memory, ascertainment resolution, life-activities, hankering, passion and such others. All these verily are the names of Consciousness.
Bhikshuka Upanishad Unclad, unaffected by pairs (of opposites, heat and cold, etc.,) receiving no gifts, solely adhering to pure meditation, established in the Atman alone, receiving alms at the prescribed time for sustaining life, (taking shelter during nights) in a deserted house, temple, hay stack, ant-hill, shade of a tree, potter’s hut, a place where ritual fire is kept, sandy bank of a river, a mountain thicket or cavity, a hollow in a tree, the vicinity of a water fall, or a piece of clean ground, they are well on the way to realize Brahman; with pure mind, they give up their bodies in the state of renunciation as a Paramahamsa
Advaya Taraka Upanishad It is well known that in the middle of it there exists Kundalani which is as bright as crores of suns and as thin as the lotus thread. The man who sees that with his mind’s eye attains salvation by getting rid of all sins. Always for understanding the things within, practice with deep application of mind is necessary. In Tharaka yoga, the concepts like Daharakasa are understood only by the mind’s eye. The Uthara (post) yoga is without form. It is beyond the mind.
Adhyatma Upanishad The mind is His body. (Though) moving within the mind, the mind knows Him not. The mind-stuff is His body. (Though) moving within the mind-stuff, the mind-stuff knows Him not. The mind of the Yogin perishes as he stays without intermission in the Self alone, knowing, through reasoning, Shruti, and experience, that one is the Self of all beings. This perception of difference is rooted in the mind (of the percipient); there is none of it in the absence of the mind. Therefore, concentrate the mind on the supreme Self as the subject. The expressed sense of the word 'Tvam' shines forth as the content of the idea and expression 'I'; it is awareness blended with the mind (the inner organ of perception). 'Meditation' is indeed the exclusive attention of the mind fixed on (the import) rendered indubitable through listening and thinking. 'Concentration' is said to be the mind which, outgrowing the dualism between the meditator and meditation, gradually dwells exclusively on the object (of meditation) and is like a flame in a windless spot Mind's modifications in regard to the Self are un-cognized in that state; they are (only) inferred as past, after quitting the state of Samadhi.
Saubhagya Lakshmi Upanishad With intent minds, all of you Gods, listen! With the aid of the fifteen verses beginning with the verse 'hiranyavarnam' (of the hue of gold), etc., meditate on the four-armed Sri (the Goddess of Prosperity), whose form is that of the Fourth, who is beyond the Fourth, who is supreme over all, who is present in all consecrated seats, and who is encircled by the divinities of the seats, major and minor. Filling the mouth with breath, and in Fire's seat Drawing the down-breath, there arresting, With fingers six of hands, from thumbs commencing Stopping the ears, eyes and nostrils, too, Yogins behold along this way The inner light; their minds wrapt in the course Of varied musings on the sacred Om. The vital breath moves on to Largest Space,The sure abode of all perfections; thence, Ignoring mind's delight, the breath pervades All yogic seats. Yoga achieved, the all-pervading sound Tinkles and hence is 'the tinkler' styled. Then, integrated, the mind is adored Of sages like Sanaka and the rest. Like salt in water melted and fused, So self and mind in oneness are blended. That concentration is styled. Breath dwindles and mind dissolves And Bliss homogeneous is found. This is concentration. Rid of the light of wakefulness, And of the mind that dreams; Rid of sleep that knows none other, Free of all that causes pain; Total void without reflections -Such is concentration. Whither-soever the mind wanders There, just there, is the prime abode; There, just there, is supreme Brahman That abides alike everywhere. The wheel of the palate: There flows the immortal elixir; the image of the tiny bell is in the orifice whence is suspended 'the royal tooth' (the uvula) the tenth opening. One should meditate on the void there. The dissolution of the mind-stuff takes place.